Low Carbon Shipping & Shipping in Changing Climates

Shipping in Changing Climates

The Shipping in Changing Climates project was an EPSRC funded project running from November 2013 to April 2017. The aim of the project was to create an enduring and multidisciplinary research community strongly linked to industry and capable of informing the policy-making process by developing new knowledge and understanding on the subject of the shipping system, its energy efficiency and emissions, and its transition to a low carbon future.


The work of the consortium was structured into three key themes:

Theme 1: Understanding the scope for greater energy efficiency on the transport’s supply side – the ship as a system.

Theme 2: Understanding demand side drivers and trends – trade and transport demand.

Theme 3: Understanding supply/demand interactions – transition and evolution of the shipping system.

Shipping in Changing Climates was funded by UKRI, hosted by UCL and partnered with the University of Southampton, Newcastle University, the University of Manchester, the University of Strathclyde, Shell, Lloyd’s Register, Rolls Royce, BMT Group, and Maritime Strategy International.

Low Carbon Shipping

Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach, was a research project that started in January 2010 and ended in June 2013 funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (£1.7m) and a number of industry partners.

In addition to the research that was undertaken at the five universities including University College London, Newcastle University, University of Strathclyde, University of Hull and University of Plymouth, the project was supported by substantial in-house research and data from the consortium members from industry, NGO and government departments, including Shell, Maersk, Rolls Royce, BMT and Lloyds Register.

Low Carbon Shipping was funded by UKRI, hosted by UCL and partnered with the University of Plymouth, Newcastle University, the University of Hull, the University of Strathclyde, Shell, Lloyd’s Register, Rolls Royce, and BMT Group.

Featured publications

Canning (2017) Industry views on the scope for carbon emissions reduction

Gibson et al (2017) A novel approach for holistic environmental assessment of ships

Smith et al. (2016) CO2 emissions from international shipping: Possible reduction targets and their associated pathways

Traut et al. (2016) Report from the lookout – understanding climate change impacts on shipping

Rehmatulla & Smith (2015) CO2 emission targets for shipping

Smith et al. (2014) Third IMO GHG Study 2014 – Final Report

Smith et al. (2014) Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach Executive Summary

Smith et al. (2014) Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach – Full report

Bows-Larkin et al. (2014) High seas, High Stakes

Smith et al. (2013) What is a fair measurement and apportionment scheme?

Walsh et al. (2013) A comparison of alternative decarbonisation scenarios for UK shipping

Mander et al. (2012) A systems perspective on decarbonising the UK energy system – the impacts on shipping CO2 emissions

Mander et al. (2012) Decarbonising the UK energy system and the implications for UK shipping, Carbon Management, 3, 6, 601-614. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Walsh et al. (2012) A new method for estimating national-scale CO2 from shipping: preliminary results from a UK study

Bows-Larkin, A. (2015) Shipping charts a high carbon course – Carbon Management 2015. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Haji et al. (2015) Policy implications of meeting the 2°C climate target

Haji et al. (2015) Exploring the sectoral level impacts and absolute emission changes of using alternative fuels in international shipping

Traut et al. (2015) Risk, rice and rising seas – Impacts of climate change on maritime transport

Traut et al. (2015) Emissions budgets for shipping in a 2°C global warming scenario and implications for operational efficiency

Bola (2014) The potential for sustainable sea transport: A case study of Southern Lomiaviti

Bows-Larkin, A. (2014) All adrift: aviation, shipping, and climate change policy – Climate Policy. Peer reviewed paper.

Kotrikla et al. (2014) Air pollutant emissions at Aegean island port

Newell et al. (2014) Turning the tide: the need for sustainable sea transport in the Pacific

Bichou (2013) Achieving environmental security in shipping and ports

Bows-Larkin (2013) Pathways to low-carbon international transport: A comparison of shipping and aviation

Zis et al. (2013) An economic assessment of the feasibility of speed reduction schemes near ports

Anderson & Bows (2012) Executing a Scharnow turn: reconciling shipping emissions with international commitments on climate change, Carbon Management, 3, 6, 615-628. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Banks et al. (2012) Seafarers’ current awareness, knowledge, motivation and ideas towards low carbon – energy efficient operations

Bows & Smith (2012) The (low-carbon) shipping forecast: opportunities on the high seas, Carbon Management, 3 (6), 525 – 528. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Gilbert & Bows (2012) Exploring the scope for complimentary sub-global policy to mitigate CO2 from shipping, Energy Policy, 50, 613-622. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Rigot-Muller et al. (2012) Mapping UK international seaborne trade and traffic

Rigot-Muller et al. (2012) Assessing emissions of UK international maritime traffic

Smith & O’Keefe (2012) What is an appropriate measurement and apportionment strategy for international shipping?

Antunes (2011) Tools for the control of ship emissions and energy and the new IMO regulations

Reynolds (2011) The history and status of GHG emissions control in international shipping

Smith et al. (2011) Initial estimates on shipping’s cost impacts and emissions for a range of policy options – A prototype model

Walsh et al (2017) Global trade scenarios some lessons from regional case studies

Prakash et al. (2016) Revealed preferences for energy efficiency in shipping markets

Schuitmaker (2016) Evolution of Global Maritime Freight Energy Demand and CO2 Emissions: A BAU and 2DS Scenario

Agnolucci et al. (2015) Shipping demand scenarios using estimated elasticities

Andersson & Brynolf (2015) Marine fuel alternatives for a low carbon future – Market influence on pathways selected

Rehmatulla & Smith (2015) Barriers to energy efficiency in shipping: A triangulated approach to investigate the principal agent problem, Energy Policy, 84, 44-57. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Rehmatulla et al. (2015) The diffusion of energy efficiency technologies in shipping

Rehmatulla (2014) Market failures and barriers affecting energy efficient operations in shipping PhD Thesis

Rojon & Smith (2014) On the attitudes and opportunities of fuel consumption monitoring and measurement within the shipping industry

Landamore & Dinwoodie (2013) What is the likely future demand for shipping?

Parker (2013) Matching on the tanker market

Rehmatulla et al. (2013) Implementation barriers to low carbon shipping

Dinwoodie et al. (2012) Oil tanker flows involving the UK to 2050: A Delphi survey

Landamore & Dinwoodie (2012) What is the future demand for shipping?

McKinnon (2012) An Assessment of the contribution of shippers to the decarbonisation of deep-sea container supply chains

Rehmatulla (2012) Barriers to uptake of operational measures

Rehmatulla & Smith (2012) Implementation barriers to low carbon shipping

Landamore (2011) Sustainable shipping – A way forward? Developing economic imperatives in an international market

McKinnon & Woolford (2011) The effects of port-centric logistics on the carbon intensity of the maritime supply chain: A preliminary review

Baresic (2017) LNG as a ship fuel- A comparative analysis of the Netherlands and eastern Baltic

Fan et al (2017) Study of real-time fuel consumption model for large bulk carrier

Hansson et al (2017) Assessment of the potential for selected alternative fuels for the maritime sector

Buckingham (2016) Geared Electric Propulsion

Hansson et al. (2016) The potential role of electrofuels as marine fuel: a cost-effective option for the future shipping sector?

Walsh et al. (2016) Comparing the lifecycle emissions of marine fuels

Wu & Bucknall (2016) Power Marine Propulsion Using Battery Power

Allwright & Maclaine (2015) Commercial wind propulsion solutions: Putting the ‘sail’ back in sailing

Howett et al. (2015) The use of wind assist technology on two contrasting route case studies

Kesieme, Murphy & Pazouki (2015) U3 life cycle assessment of upstream pathways towards environmentally effective biofuels for shipping

Leites (2015) Fuel cell systems for seagoing ships

Lindstad (2015) Hydrogen the next maritime fuel

Raucci et al. (2015) Hydrogen on board ship: A first analysis of key parameters and implications

Senger and Köhler (2015) Transitions to low carbon ship propulsion technologies including wind, simulated with an agent-based model using evolutionary approaches

Taljegård et al. (2015) Electrofuels – A possibility for shipping in a low carbon future

Raucci et al. (2014) A framework to evaluate hydrogen as a fuel in international shipping

Sidhu et al. (2014) Towards Zero Emission Fishing

Baldi et al. (2013) The influence of propulsion system design on the carbon footprint of different marine fuels

Grahn et al. (2013) Cost-effective choices of marine fuels under stringent CO2 targets

Raucci et al. (2013) Evaluating scenarios for alternative fuels in international shipping

Smith et al. (2013) Analysis techniques for evaluating the fuel savings associated with wind assistance

Traut et al. (2013) Propulsive power contribution of a kite and a Flettner rotor on selected shipping routes, Applied Energy, 113, 362-372. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Whitelegg & Bucknall (2013) Electrical propulsion in the low carbon economy

Surplus (2011) B9 ships: Sail and virtual bio-methane powered coastal vessels

Buckingham & Pearson (2017) Fishing Vessel Power & Propulsion Future Evolutions

Farrier et al (2017) Opportunities and constraints of electrical energy storage systems in ships

Hudson & Galle (2017) Investigation of ship motions and fuel consumption with respect to Charter Party agreements

Bochetti et al. (2016) CO2 emission monitoring and fault-detection based on big navigation data

Calleya (2016) Designing future ships and marine systems for future operating conditions with a low Carbon Intensity

Cui et al. (2016) Voyage Optimisation towards Energy Efficient Ship Operations

Fearnley & Fowler (2016) Green technology and payback through use of energy recovery

Howett, Turan & Day (2016) WASPP: Wind Assisted Ship Performance Prediction

Nikolopoulos & Boulougouris (2016) A Methodology for the Holistic, Simulation Driven Ship Design Optimization under uncertainty

Zaman et al. (2016) Utilising real-time ship data to save fuel consumption and reduce carbon emission

Calleya, J. (2015) Ship impact model for technical assessment and selection of Carbon dioxide Reducing Technologies (CRTs). Peer Reviewed Paper.

Daskalakis, Chatzinikolaou & Ventikos (2015) Platform for assessing ship emissions from a life cycle perspective

Gilbert (2015) Technologies for the high seas: meeting the climate challenge – Carbon Management. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Gilbert, Wilson & Walsh (2015) Ship = CE2: Revisited

Schaub et al. (2015) Fast-time simulation for prediction of fuel consumption and emissions during ship manoeuvres

Zhou & Wang (2015) A case ship study on practical design and installation of carbon absorption and solidification system

Calleya (2014) Ship Design Decision Support for a Carbon Dioxide Constrained Future PhD Thesis

Banks et al. (2013) Understanding ship operating profiles with an aim to improve energy efficient ship operations

de la Fuente & Greig (2013) Making shipping greener: ORC modelling under realistic operative conditions

Haji et al. (2013) Estimating the global container shipping network using data and models

High Seas (2013) A new ship on the horizon?

Murphy et al. (2013) Modelling ship emission factors and emission indices

Traut et al. (2013) Monitoring shipping emissions via AIS data? Certainly

Gilbert et al. (2012) Mutiny on the High Seas: exploring step-change technological mitigation in the shipping sector

Mangan et al. (2012) The relationship between transport logistics, future ship design and whole system efficiency

Traut et al. (2012) Low C for the High Seas flettner rotor power contribution on a route Brazil to UK

Walsh & Bows (2012) Size matters: exploring the importance of vessel characteristics to inform estimates of shipping emissions, Applied Energy, 98, 128-137. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Baldi et al (2017) Process integration as a tool for the improvement of cruise ships energy efficiency

Coraddu et al (2017) A data driven approach for ship energy efficiency and maintenance

Lim et al (2017) Understanding approaches to vessel energy efficiency system

Bonello & Smith (2016) Estimating ship performance following energy efficiency interventions using in-service data

Rehmatulla et al. (2016) Investigating the energy efficiency gap in shipping

Rehmatulla & Calleya (2016) The implementation of technical energy efficiency measures in shipping submitted by IMarEST and RINA (MEPC 69/INF.8)

Ayne (2015) Energy efficiency via engine improvements: A review of dual fuel engine development

Banks & Armstrong (2015) Integrated approach to vessel energy efficiency

Dikis et al. (2015) Increasing ship machinery energy efficiency by dynamic condition monitoring maintenance

Parker et al. (2015) Understanding the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator: An empirical analysis of ships from the Royal Belgian Shipowners Association

Rehmatulla (2015) Assessing the implementation of technical energy efficiency measures in shipping

Schaumeier et al. (2015) Investigating shipping behaviour in emission control areas: A visual approach to data analysis

Agnolucci, Smith, & Rehmatulla (2014) Energy efficiency and time charter rates: Energy efficiency savings recovered by shipowners in the Panamax market, Transportation Research Part A, 66, 173 – 184. Peer Reviewed Paper.

Lu et al. (2013) Voyage optimisation: Prediction of ship specific fuel consumption for energy efficient shipping

Smith et al. (2013) Assessment of shipping’s efficiency using satellite AIS data 

Smith, T. (2012) Technical energy efficiency, its interaction with optimal operating speeds and the implications for the management of shipping’s carbon emissions, Carbon Management, 3 (6), 589 – 600. Peer Reviewed Paper.